# W. Kendal Bushe

#### Associate Professor

B.Sc. (Alberta); Ph.D. (Cambridge); Fellow of the Combustion Institute

phone: |
(604) 822-3398 |

email: |
wkb@mech.ubc.ca |

website: |
Combustion Simulation Laboratory |

office: |
CEME 2069 |

### Research Interests

- Combustion
- Turbulence
- Numerical Simulation
- Computational Fluid Dynamics
- IC Engines
- Thermal Power Generation

### Current Research Work

My research is in turbulent combustion. I have been developing methods for numerical simulation of turbulent combustion, including the development of a new modelling approach which has come to be known as Conditional Source-term Estimation. I have also been involved in experimental work; my research group has commissioned two different experimental facilities for the study of the ignition and combustion of methane and natural gas in engines.

**Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes:**Here, the governing equations in their ensemble-averaged form are solved to obtain either steady or transient flow fields using both commercial CFD packages and in-house, flow-specific codes. Models must be provided for the dissipation of energy due to turbulence. In the case of reacting flows, models must also be provided for the averaged chemical source-terms. Applications range from fundamental studies to industrial applications for use in design optimization.**Large Eddy Simulation:**In LES, the governing equations are spatially filtered such that only the large scale motions in the flow are resolved on the computational grid. Models must be provided for the dissipation of energy at unresolved scales. In the case of reacting flows, models must be provided for the chemical source-terms as well because they are also under-resolved in simulations of most practical flames. Here we have been focusing on careful validation of models against DNS and experimental data for simple laboratory-scale flames.**Fundamental ignition simulations:**We are also studying autoignition using the relatively new Stochastic Particle Model, which solves the chemical Master equation using a Monte Carlo technique. Using this method, the autoignition delay time becomes a random variable. This study has significant implications for the operation and control of Homogeneous-Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engines.

### Teaching Activities

- MECH 375: Heat Transfer
- MECH 470: Energy Conversion Systems
- MECH 479: Computational Fluid Dynamics
- MECH 576: Combustion
- MECH 586: Turbulent Shear Flows

### Selected Publications:

- N. Sekularac, W. K. Bushe & X. Fang “An A Priori Analysis on Principal Component Analysis Based Conditional Source-term Estimation Model for Sandia Jet Flames,” Combustion and Flame, 260, 113274, 2024.
- N. Sekularac, X. Fang, M. H. Davy & W. K. Bushe, “Conditional Space Evaluation of Progress Variable Definitions for Cambridge/Sandia Swirl Flames,” Combustion, Theory and Modelling, 27(6), pp. 736-767, 2023.
- A. Mousemi & W. K. Bushe, “Modeling the presumed joint probability density function of conditioning variables in stratified turbulent flames,” Combustion and Flame, 252, 112754, 2023.
- A. Mousemi, M. Jadidi, S. B. Dworkin & W. K. Bushe, “Application of machine learning in low-order manifold representation of chemistry in turbulent flames,” Combustion Theory and Modelling, 27(1), pp. 83-102, 2022.
- A. Mousemi, W. K. Bushe & S. Hochgreb, “Evaluation of The Uniform Conditional State Filter-Chemistry Model,” Combustion and Flame, 229, 111418, 2021.
- A. Mousemi & W. K. Bushe, “The joint probability density function of mixture fraction, reaction progress variable, and total enthalpy in a stratified, swirl-stabilized turbulent flame,” Physics of Fluids, 33, 035106, 2021.
- S. De Graaf, S. R. Taylor, L. de Guillebon, M. Konle, W. K. Bushe, “Improvements to the Uniform Conditional State model to predict swirl-stabilized flames”, In AIAA Scitech Forum, p. 290, 2021.
- X. Fang, R. Ismail, W. K. Bushe & M. H. Davy, “Simulation of ECN Diesel Spray A using Conditional Source-term Estimation”, Combustion Theory and Modelling, 24(4), pp. 725-760, 2020.
- W. K. Bushe, C. Devaud & J. Bellan, “A priori evaluation of the Double-conditioned Conditional Source-term Estimation model for high-pressure heptane turbulent combustion using DNS data obtained with one-step chemistry”, Combustion and Flame, 217, pp. 131-151, 2020.
- S. De Graaf, L. de Guillebon, M. Konle & W. K. Bushe, “Evaluation of the Uniform Conditional State Method for Turbulence-Chemistry Interaction Modelling of Swirl-Stabilized Flames”, In Turbo Expo: Power for Land, Sea, and Air, 84126, London, UK, 2020.
- W. K. Bushe, C. Devaud & J. R. Bellan, “Turbulent high-pressure reaction-rate modeling using the Double-conditioned Conditional Source-term Estimation method”, In AIAA Scitech 2020 Forum, Orlando, FL, p. 1153, 2020.
- C. Devaud, W. K. Bushe & J. Bellan, “The modeling of the turbulent reaction rate under high-pressure conditions: A priori evaluation of the Conditional Source-term Estimation concept,”
*Combustion and Flame*,*207*, pp. 205-221, 2019. - G. R. Hendra & W. K. Bushe, “The uniform conditional state model for turbulent reacting flows,”
*Combustion and Flame*,*205*, pp. 484-505, 2019. - C. Devaud, W.K. Bushe, and J.R. Bellan, “Modelling of the Turbulent Reaction Rate in High-Pressure Flows,”
*In AIAA Scitech 2019 Forum*(p.1493), 2019. - W. K. Bushe, “Spatial gradients of conditional averages in turbulent flames,” Combustion and Flame, 192, pp. 314-339, 2018.