Kendal Bushe

Kendal Bushe

Kendal Bushe

Associate Professor

B.Sc. (Alberta); Ph.D. (Cambridge)

phone: (604) 822-3398
fax: (604) 822-2403
email: wkb@mech.ubc.ca 
website:  Combustion Simulation Laboratory
office: CEME 2069

Research Interests

  • Combustion
  • Turbulence
  • Numerical Simulation
  • Computational Fluid Dynamics
  • IC Engines
  • Thermal Power Generation

Current Research Work

My research is in turbulent combustion. I have been developing methods for numerical simulation of turbulent combustion, including the development of a new modelling approach which has come to be known as Conditional Source-term Estimation. I have also been involved in experimental work; my research group has commissioned two different experimental facilities for the study of the ignition and combustion of methane and natural gas in engines.

  • Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes: Here, the governing equations in their ensemble-averaged form are solved to obtain either steady or transient flow fields using both commercial CFD packages and in-house, flow-specific codes. Models must be provided for the dissipation of energy due to turbulence. In the case of reacting flows, models must also be provided for the averaged chemical source-terms. Applications range from fundamental studies to industrial applications for use in design optimization.
  • Large Eddy Simulation: In LES, the governing equations are spatially filtered such that only the large scale motions in the flow are resolved on the computational grid. Models must be provided for the dissipation of energy at unresolved scales. In the case of reacting flows, models must be provided for the chemical source-terms as well because they are also under-resolved in simulations of most practical flames. Here we have been focusing on careful validation of models against DNS and experimental data for simple laboratory-scale flames.
  • Fundamental ignition simulations: We are also studying autoignition using the relatively new Stochastic Particle Model, which solves the chemical Master equation using a Monte Carlo technique. Using this method, the autoignition delay time becomes a random variable. This study has significant implications for the operation and control of Homogeneous-Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engines.
  • Shock-tube Research: We have been studying ignition experimentally using a shock-tube facility. Our earlier work involved examining ignition of homogeneous mixtures of gaseous fuels and air. We used that data to develop chemical kinetic mechanisms that are substantially better at predicting the autoignition of natural gas-like fuels in air under engine-relevant conditions. Our most recent work has been studying autoignition of turbulent jets of methane injected into the shock-tube using optical diagnostics. This data has been used for validation of our simulation tools.
  • Single-Cylinder Research Engine: We have a unique diesel engine facility in which a 6-cylinder production diesel engine has been modified to fire on only one cylinder. This engine is fully instrumented for research purposes and we have been using this to study High-Pressure Direct-Injection (HPDI) of natural gas using exhaust gas recirculation (EGR).

Teaching Activities

  • MECH 270: Thermodynamics
  • MECH 375: Heat Transfer
  • MECH 479: Computational Fluid Dynamics
  • MECH 579: Advanced Computational Fluid Dynamics
  • MECH 576: Combustion
  • MECH 586: Turbulent Shear Flows

Selected Publications:

  • C. Devaud, W.K. Bushe, and J.R. Bellan, “Modeling of the Turbulent Reaction Rate in High-Pressure Flows,” In AIAA Scitech 2019 Forum (p. 1493), 2019.
  • J. Yi, A. Frisque, and W.K. Bushe, “Evaluation of Impact of Turbulence Model Choices in CFD for Cp-Values Used in Airflow Networks, ” Proceedings of the 15th IBPSA Conference San Francisco, CA, USA, August 2017.
  • H.P. Tsui, and W.K. Bushe, “Conditional Source-term Estimation using dynamic ensemble selection and parallel iterative solution,” Combustion Theory and Modelling20(5), pp.812-833, June 2016.
  • M.M. Salehi, A. Frisque, and W.K. Bushe, “DID PURSUING LEED MAKE THE CIRS BUILDING MORE ENERGY EFFICIENT?” Proceedings of the 14th Conference of International Building Performance Simulation Association, Hyderabad, India, December 2015.
  • M.M. Salehi, B.T. Cavka, A. Frisque, D. Whitehead, and W.K. Bushe, “A case study: The energy performance gap of the Center for Interactive Research on Sustainability at the University of British Columbia,” Journal of Building Engineering4, pp.127-139, December 2015.
  • N. Shahbazian, M.M. Salehi, C.P. Groth, Ö.L. Gülder, and W.K. Bushe, “Performance of conditional source-term estimation model for LES of turbulent premixed flames in thin reaction zones regime,” Proceedings of the Combustion Institute35(2), pp.1367-1375, 2015.
  • G.V. Nivarti, M.M. Salehi, and W.K. Bushe, “A mesh partitioning algorithm for preserving spatial locality in arbitrary geometries,” Journal of Computational Physics281, pp.352-364, January 2015.
  • D. Sawires, M. Johnson, G.R. Hendra, and W.K. Bushe, “Effects of beam steering on the accuracy of long-path optical diagnostics of plumes,” Proceedings  of the 108th Air and Waste Management Association Annual Conference and Exhibition, June 2015.
  • K. Luo, H. Wang, W. K. Bushe, and J. Fan, “Direct numerical simulation and reaction rate modelling of premixed turbulent flames,” International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 2014.
  • Salehi, M.M., Bushe, W.K., P. Marmion, and R. Pradinuk, “CFD Modelling of an Underground Water Tank Heat Storage System,” Proceedings of the eSIM IBPSA 2014 Conference, 2014.
  • M. Mahdi Salehi, W. Kendal Bushe, N. Shahbazian, and C. Groth, “Modified laminar flamelet presumed probability density function for LES of premixed turbulent combustion,” Proceedings of the Combustion Institute, vol. 34, no. 1, pp. 1203–1211, 2013.
  • S. Munshi, G. P. McTaggart-Cowan, W. K. Bushe, and S. N. Rogak, Method and apparatus for providing for high EGR gaseous-fuelled direct injection internal combustion engine. Google Patents, 2007.
  • R. W. Grout, W. K. Bushe, and C. Blair, “Predicting the ignition delay of turbulent methane jets using Conditional Source-term Estimation,” Combustion Theory and Modelling, vol. 11, no. 6, pp. 1009–1028, 2007.
  • G. P. McTaggart-Cowan, H. L. Jones, S. N. Rogak, W. K. Bushe, P. G. Hill, and S. R. Munshi, “Direct-Injected Hydrogen-Methane Mixtures in a Heavy-Duty Compression Ignition Engine,” SAE Technical Paper, 2006.
  • G. D. Sullivan, J. Huang, W. K. Bushe, and S. N. Rogak, “Auto-ignition of Transient Turbulent Gaseous Fuel Jets at High Pressure,” SAE Technical Paper, 2006.
  • G. D. Sullivan, J. Huang, T. X. Wang, W. K. Bushe, and S. N. Rogak, “Emissions variability in gaseous fuel direct injection compression ignition combustion,” SAE Technical Paper, 2005.
  • J. R. L. Ramirez, W. K. Bushe, and A. Frisque, “Conditional Moment Closure Based on Two Conditioning Variables,” in Progress in Turbulence, Springer, 2005, pp. 103–106.
  • G. P. McTaggart-Cowan, W. K. Bushe, S. N. Rogak, P. G. Hill, and S. R. Munshi, “The effects of varying EGR test conditions on a direct injection of natural gas heavy-duty engine with high EGR levels,” SAE Technical Paper, 2004.
  • W. K. Bushe and H. Steiner, “Laminar flamelet decomposition for conditional source-term estimation,” Physics of Fluids (1994-present), vol. 15, no. 6, pp. 1564–1575, 2003.

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